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Printing Glossary

A

A/W - an abbreviationfor Artwork.

Acetate - a transparent sheet placed over artwork allowing the artist towrite instructions or indicate where second color is to be placed.


Addendum - supplementary material additional to the main body of a bookand printed separately at the start or end of the text.

Air (US) - an amount of white space in a layout.

Airbrush - a mechanical painting tool producing an adjustable spray ofpaint driven by compressed air. Used in illustration design and photographicretouching.

Align - to line up typeset or other graphic material as specified, usinga base or vertical line as the reference point.

Alphabet (length or width) - the measurement of a complete set of lowercase alphabet characters in a given type size expressed in points or picas.

Anodized plate - an offset printing plate with a specially treated surfaceto reduce wear during printing.

Apex - the point of a character where two lines meet at the top, anexample of this is the point on the letter A.

Apron (US) - additional white space allowed in the margins of text andillustrations when forming a foldout.

Art paper - a smooth coated paper obtained by adding a coating of chinaclay compound on one or both sides of the paper.

Art (US) - in graphic arts usage, all matter other than text material egillustrations and photographs.

Ascender - any part of a lower case letter extending above the x-height.For example, the upper half of the vertical in the letters b or h.

Authors corrections - changes made to the copy by the author aftertypesetting but not including those made as a result of errors in keying in thecopy.


 

B

Backing up - to print thesecond side of printed sheet.

Backslant - letters that slant the opposite way from italic characters.

Balloon - a circle or bubble enclosing copy in an illustration. Used incartoons.

Bank - a lightweight writing paper.

Banner - a large headline or title extending across the full page width.

Base artwork - artwork requiring additional components such as halftonesor line drawings to be added before the reproduction stage.

Baseline - the line on which the bases of capital letters sit.

Bed - the base on which the Forme is held when printing by Letterpress.

Binding - the various methods used to secure loose leaves or sections ina book; eg saddle-stitch, perfect bound.

Black patch - material used to mask the window area on a negative imageof the artwork prior to \'stripping in\' a halftone.

Blanket cylinder - the cylinder via which the inked litho platetransfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber sheetwhich prevents wear to the litho plate coming into contact with the paper.

Bleed - layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on apage. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins arereferred to as \'bled off\'.

Blind emboss - a raised impression made without using ink or foil.

Block in - to sketch in the main areas of an image prior to the design.

Blow up - an enlargement, most frequently of a graphic image orphotograph.

Blurb - a short description or commentary of a book or author on a bookjacket.

Board - paper of more than 200gsm.

Body (US) - the main text of the work but not including headlines.

Body size - the height of the type measured from the top of the tallestascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. Normally given in points, thestandard unit of type size.

Bold type - type with a heavier darker appearance. Most typefaces have abold face.

Bond - a sized finished writing paper of 50gsm or more. Can also be usedfor printing upon.

Border - a continuous decorative design or rule surrounding the matteron the page.

Box - a section of text marked off by rules or white space and presentedseparately from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections inmagazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.

Bristol board - a fine board made in various qualities for drawing.

Broadside - an original term for work printed on one side of a largesheet of paper.

Bromide - a photographic print made on bromide paper.

Bronzing - an effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing with ametallic powder.

Bullet - a large dot preceding text to add emphasis.


C


Calendered finish - produced by passing paper through a series of metalrollers to give a very smooth surface.

Caliper - the thickness of sheet of paper or board expressed in microns(millionths of a metre). Also the name of the tool used to make themeasurement.

Camera ready - artwork or pasted up material that is ready forreproduction. Cap line - an imaginary line across the top of capital letters.The distance from the the cap line to the baseline is the cap size.

Caps - an abbreviation for capital letters.

Caps and small caps - a style of type that shows capital letters used inthe normal way while the body copy is set in capital letters which are of aslightly smaller size.

Caption - the line or lines of text that refer to informationidentifying a picture or illustration.

Carbonless - paper coated with chemicals and dye which will producecopies without carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).

Caret marks - an indication to the printer of an ommission in the copyindicated as ( ) showing the insertion.

Cartridge - a thick general purpose paper used for printing, drawing andwrapping.

Case bound - a hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases areusually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather.

Cast off - a calculation determining how much space copy will take upwhen typeset.

Cast coated - art paper with a exceptionally glossy coated finish,usually on one side only.

Catchline - a temporary headline for identification on the top of agalley proof.

Century Schoolbook - a popular serif typeface used in magazines andbooks for text setting which has a large x-height and an open appearance.

Chalking - a powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after theink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing.

Character count - the number of characters; i.e. letters, figures, signsor spaces in a piece of copy, line or paragraph used as a first stage in typecalculations.

Chase - a metal frame in which metal type and blocks (engravings) arelocked into position to make up a page.

Close up
- a proof correction mark to reduce the amount of space betweencharacters or words indicated as (\').

Coated - printing papers which after making have had a surface coatingwith clay etc, to give a smoother, more even finish with greater opacity.

Cold type - type produced without the use of characters cast from moltenmetal, such as on a VDU.

Collate - to gather separate sections or leaves of a book together inthe correct order for binding.

Colour separations - the division of a multi-coloured original or linecopy into the basic (or primary) process colours of yellow, magenta, cyan andblack. These should not be confused with the optical primaries; red, green andblue. Column inch - a measure of area used in newspapers and magazines tocalculate the cost of display advertising. A column inch is one column wide byone inch deep.

Column rule - a light faced vertical rule used to separate columns oftype.

Compose - to set copy into type.

Concertina fold - a method of folding in which each fold opens in theopposite direction to its neighbour, giving a concertina or pleated effect.

Condensed - a style of typeface in which the characters have anelongated appearance.

Continuous tone - an image in which the subject has continuous shades ofcolour or grey without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot bereproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate theimage into dots.

Contrast - the degree of tones in a photograph ranging from highlight toshadow.

Copyright - The right of copyright gives protection to the originator ofmaterial to prevent use without express permission or acknowledgement of theoriginator.

Corner marks - marks printed on a sheet to indicate the trim or registermarks.

Cropping - the elimination of parts of a photograph or other originalthat are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining partsof the image to be enlarged to fill the space.

Cross head - a heading set in the body of the text used to break it intoeasily readable sections.

Cursive - used to describe typefaces that resemble written script.

Cut flush - a method of trimming a book after the cover has beenattached to the pages.

Cutout - a halftone where the background has been removed to produce asilhouette.


D


Dagger and double dagger - symbols used mainly as reference marksfor footnotes.

Dash - a short horizontal rule used for punctuation.

Descender - any part of a lower case letter that extends below thex-height, as in the case of \"y\" and \"j\".

Die - a hardened steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image.Used in the production of good quality letter headings.

Disk - magnetic media used to storeinformation.

Disk Operating System (DOS) - software for computer systems with diskdrives which supervises and controls the running of programs. The operatingsystem is \'booted\' into the computer from disk by a small program whichpermanently resides in the memory. Commom operating systems include MS-DOS,PC-DOS (IBM\'s version of MS-DOS), CP/M (an operating system for older, 8-bitcomputers), Unix and BOS. --And MacOS, for Macintosh computers.

Display type - larger type used for headings etc. Normally about 18point or larger.

Dot matrix printer - a printer in which each character is formed from amatrix of dots. They are normally impact systems, ie a wire is fired at aribbon in order to leave an inked dot on the page, but thermal andelectro-erosion systems are also used.

Double density - a method of recording on floppy disks using a modifiedfrequency modulation process that allows more data to be stored on a disk.

Double page spread - two facing pages of newspaper or magazine where thetextual material on the left hand side continues across to the right hand side.Abbreviated to DPS.

Downloadable fonts - type faces which can be stored on a disk and thendownloaded to the printer when required for printing. These are, by definition,bit-mapped fonts and, therefore, fixed in size and style.

DPI (Dots Per Inch) - the measurement of resolution for page printers,phototypesetting machines and graphics screens. Currently graphics screensreproduce 60 to 100dpi, most page printers work at 300dpi and typesettingsystems operate at 1,000dpi and above.

Drawn on - a method of binding a paper cover to a book by drawing thecover on and gluing to the back of the book.

Drop cap - a large initial letter at the start of the text that dropsinto the line or lines of text below.

Dry transfer (lettering) - Characters, drawings, etc, that can betransferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet.Best known manufacturer is Letraset.

Dye transfer - a photographic colour print using special coated papersto produce a full colour image. Can serve as an inexpensive proof.


E


EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) - a graphics standard for the PC whichcan be added or built into a system to give sharper characters and improvedcolour with the correct display device. Standard EGA resolution is 640 by 350dots in any 16 out of 64 colours.

Egyptian - a term for a style of type faces having square serifs andalmost uniform thickness of strokes.

Eight sheet - a poster measuring 60 x 80in (153 x 203cm) and,traditionally, made up of eight individual sheets.

Electronic Publishing - a generic term for the distribution ofinformation which is stored, transmitted and reproduced electronically.Teletext and Videotext are two examples of this technology in its purest form,ie no paper.. Desktop publishing forms just one part of the electronicpublishing market.

Em - in printing terms it is a square unit with edges equal in size tothe chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M which originally wasas wide as the type size.

Em dash - a dash used in punctuation the length of one em.

Embossing - relief images formed by using a recessed die.

En dash - a dash approximately half the width of an em dash.

En - a unit of measurement that is half as wide as an em.

End papers - the four page leaves at the front and end of a book whichare pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).

Epson emulation - the industry standard control codes for dot matrixprinters were developed by Epson and virtually all software packages and mostdot matrix printers either follow or improve on these codes.

Exception dictionary - in word processing or desktop publishing this isa store of pre-hyphenated words that do not conform to the usual rulescontained in the hyphenation and justification program (H & J). Someprograms, PageMaker for example, only use an exception dictionary.

Expanded type - a typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatterappearance.

Express - a printer control language developed by OASYS.


F

Face - an abbreviationfor typeface referring to a family in a given style.

Filler - extra material used to complete a column or page, usually oflittle importance.

Flag - the designed title of a newspaper as it appears at the top ofpage one.

Flexography - a rotary letterpress process printing from rubber orflexible plates and using fast drying inks. Mainly used for packaging.

Floating accent - an accent mark which is set separately from the maincharacter and is then placed either over or under it.

Floppy disk - (see
Disk)

Flush left - copy aligned along the left margin.

Flush right - copy aligned along the right margin.

Flyer - an inexpensively produced circular used for promotionaldistribution.

Foil blocking - a process for stamping a design on a book cover withoutink by using a coloured foil with pressure from a heated die or block.

Font (or fount) - a complete set of characters in a typeface.

Form letter - used in word processing to describe a repetitive letter inwhich the names and addresses of individuals are automatically generated from adata base or typed individually.

Forme - type and blocks assembled in pages and imposed in a metal chaseready for printing.

Four colour process - printing in full colour using four colourseparation negatives - yellow, magenta, cyan and black.

French fold - a sheet which has been printed on one side only and thenfolded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.

Full measure - a line set to the entire line length.

Full point - a full stop.


G


Galley proof - proofs taken from the galleys (see following)before being made up into pages.

Galleys - the printing term for long metal trays used to hold type afterit had been set and before the press run.

Gatefold - an oversize page where both sides fold into the gutter inoverlapping layers. Used to accommodate maps into books.

Gathering - the operation of inserting the printed pages, sections orsignatures of a book in the correct order for binding.

GEM - Digital Research\'s Graphics Environment Manager. A graphicalinterface designed both to make the operation of software simpler for thenon-expert and to allow programs to communicate with one another. Two keydesktop publishing packages, Ventura and DR\'s own GEM Desktop Publisher operateunder this environment.

Gloss ink - for use in litho and letterpress printing on coated paperswhere the ink will dry without pentration.

Golden ratio - the rule devised to give proportions of height to widthwhen laying out text and illustrations to produce the most optically pleasingresult.

Gothic - typefaces with no serifs and broad even strokes.

Gravure - a rotary printing process where the image is etched into themetal plate attached to a cylinder. The cylinder is then rotated through atrough of printing ink after which the etched surface is wiped clean by a bladeleaving the non-image area clean. The paper is then passed between two rollersand pressed against the etched cylinder drawing the ink out by absorption.

Greeking - a software device where areas of grey are used to simulatelines of text. One of desktop publishing\'s less clever methods of getting roundthe slowness of high resolution displays on the PC.

Grey scale - a range of luminance values for evaluating shading throughwhite to black. Frequently used in discussions about scanners as a measure oftheir ability to capture halftone images. Basically the more levels the betterbut with correspondingly larger memory requirements.

Grid - A systematic division of a page into areas to enable designers toensure consistency. The grid acts as a measuring guide and shows text,illustrations and trim sizes.

GSM - Grams per square metre. The unit of measurement for paper weight.

Guard - a narrow strip of paper or linen pasted to a single leaf toallow sewing into a section for binding.

Gutter - the central blank area between left and right pages.


H


Hairline rule - the thinnest rule that can be printed.

Hairlines - the thinnest of the strokes in a typeface.

Half up - artwork one and a half times the size which it will bereproduced.

Halftone - an illustration reproduced by breaking down the original toneinto a pattern of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darkerareas or shadows have larger dots.

Halftone screen - a glass plate or film placed between the originalphotograph and the film to be exposed. The screen carries a network of parallellines. The number of lines to the inch controls the coarseness of the final dotformation. The screen used depends on the printing process and the paper to beused, the higher the quality the more lines can be used.

Hanging punctuation - punctuation that is allowed to fall outside themargins instead of staying within the measure of the text.

Hard disk - a rigid disk sealed inside an airtight transport mechanism.Information stored may be accessed more rapidly than on floppy disks and far greateramounts of data may be stored. Often referred to as Winchester disks.

Hardback - a case bound book with a separate stiff board cover.

Head - the margin at the top of a page.

Helvetica - a sans serif typeface.

Hickies - a dust particle sticking to the printing plate or blanketwhich appears on the printed sheet as a dark spot surrounded by an halo.

Highlight - the lightest area in a photograph or illustration.

House style - The style of preferred spelling, punctuation, hyphenationand indentation used in a publishing house or by a particular publication toensure consistent typesetting.


I


Icons - pictorial images used on screen to indicate utility functions,files, folders or applications software. The icons are generally activated byan on-screen pointer controlled by a mouse or trackball.

Imposition - refers to the arrangement of pages on a printed sheet,which when the sheet is finally printed on both sides, folded and trimmed, willplace the pages in their correct order.

imPRESS - a page description language developed by Imagen and supportedby over 60 software products including Crystal, TeX, Superpage and AutoCAD.Almost certainly the first commercially available PDL.

Impression cylinder - the cylinder of a printing machine which bringsthe paper into contact with the with the printing plate or blanket cylinder.

Imprint - the name and place of the publisher and printer required bylaw if a publication is to be published. Sometimes accompanied by codesindicating the quantity printed, month/year of printing and an internal controlnumber.

Insert - an instruction to the printer for the inclusion of additionalcopy.

Interface - the circuit, or physical connection, which controls the flowof data between a computer and its peripherals.

International paper sizes - the International Standards Organisation(ISO) system of paper sizes is based on a series of three sizes A, B and C.Series A is used for general printing and stationery, Series B for posters andSeries C for envelopes.

Interpress - Xerox Corporation\'s page description language which was thefirst such product to be implemented. At present the language still has to beadopted commercially by a third party.

ISBN - International Standard Book Number. A reference number given toevery published work. Usually found on the back of the title page.

Italic - type with sloping letters.

Ivory board - a smooth high white board used for business cards etc.


J


Justify - the alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This isachieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessaryso that each line of text finishes at the same point.


K

K (Kilobyte) -1024 bytes, a binary 1,000.

Keep standing - to hold type or plates ready for reprints.

Kerning - the adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A andV for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance. Not all DTP systems canachieve this.

Keyline - an outline drawn or set on artwork showing the size andposition of an illustration or halftone.

Kraft paper - a tough brown paper used for packing.


L


Laid - paper with a watermark pattern showing the wire marks used in thepaper making process. Usually used for high quality stationery.

Laminate - a thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or boardto provide protection and give it a glossy finish.

Landscape - work in which the width used is greater than the height.Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which areprinted \'sideways\'. (see Portrait).

Laser printer (see also Page printer) - a high quality image printingsystem using a laser beam to produce an image on a photosensitive drum. Theimage is transferred on to paper by a conventional xerographic printingprocess. Currently, most laser printers set at 300dpi with newer modelsoperating at up to 600dpi.

Lateral reversal - a positive or negative image transposed from left toright as in a mirror reflection of the original.

Layout - a sketch of a page for printing showing the position of textand illustrations and giving general instructions.

Lead or Leading - Space added between lines of type to space outtext and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points orfractions therof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be insertedbetween lines of metal type.

Legend - the descriptive matter printed below an illustration, mostlyreferred to as a caption. Also an explanation of signs or symbols used intimetables or maps.

Letraset - a proprietary name for rub-down or dry transfer letteringused in preparing artwork.

Letterpress - a relief printing process in which a raised image is inkedto produce an impression; the impression is then transferred by placing paperagainst image and applying pressure.

Letterset - a printing process combining offset printing with aletterpress relief printing plate.

Letterspacing - the addition of space between the letters of words toincrease the line-length to a required width or to improve the appearance of aline.

Library picture - a picture taken from an existing library and notspecially commissioned.

Ligature - letters which are joined together as a single unit of typesuch as oe and fi.

Lightface - type having finer strokes than the medium typeface. Not usedas frequently as medium.

Line block - a letterpress printing plate made up of solid areas andlines and without tones.

Line gauge - a metal rule used by printers. Divided into Picas it is 72picas long (11.952in).

Linen tester - a magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image ofa halftone.

Lineup table - a table with an illuminated top used for preparing andchecking alignment of page layouts and paste-ups.

Lining figures - numerals that align on the baseline and at the top.

Linotype - manufacturers of a range of high resolution phototypesettingmachines such as the 100, 202, 300 and 500. The 100, 300 and 500 series arecapable of processing PostScript files through an external RIP and typesettingdesktop publishing files direct from disk at 1270dpi and beyond.

Lithography - a printing process based on theprinciple of the natural aversion of water to grease. The photographicallyprepared printing plate when being made is treated chemically so that the imagewill accept ink and reject water.

Logo - short for logotype. A word or combination of letters set as asingle unit. Also used to denote a specially styled company name designed aspart of a corporate image.

Loose leaf - a method of binding which allows the insertion and removalof pages for continuous updating.

Lower case - the small letters in a font of type.


M

M (Megabyte) -one million bytes.

Machine glazed (MG) - paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.

Macro - a series of instructions which would normally be issued one at atime on the keyboard to control a program. A macro facility allows them to bestored and issued automatically by a single keystroke.

Magnetic ink - a magnetized ink that can be read both by humans and byelectronic machines. Used in cheque printing.

Make-up - the assembling of all elements, to form the printed image.

Making ready - the time spent in making ready the level of the printingsurface by packing out under the forme or around the impression cylinder.

Manilla - A tough brown paper used to produce stationery and wrappingpaper.

Manuscript (MS) - the original written or typewritten work of an authorsubmitted for publication.

Margins - the non printing areas of page.

Mark up - copy prepared for a compositor setting out in detail all thetypesetting instructions.

Mask - opaque material or masking tape used to block-off an area of theartwork.

Masthead - details of publisher and editorial staff usually printed onthe contents page.

Matt art - a coated printing paper with a dull surface.

Measure - denotes the width of a setting expressed in pica ems.

Mechanical binding - a method of binding which secures pre-trimmedleaves by the insertion of wire or plastic spirals through holes drilled in thebinding edge.

Mechanical tint - a pre-printed sheet of dots, lines orpatterns that canbe laid down on artwork for reproduction.

Memory - the part of the computer which stores information for immediateaccess. Nowadays this consists exclusively ofRAM, random access memory, whichholds the applications software and data or ROM, read only memory, which holdspermanent information such as the DOS bootstrap routines. Memory size isexpressed in K or M (alt. \"k\" or \"MB\").

Menu-driven - programs which allow the user to request functions bychoosing from a list of options.

Metallic ink - printing inks which produce an effect gold, silver,bronze or metallic colours.

MG (Machine glazed) - paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.

Mock-up - the rough visual of a publication or design.

Modem (MOdulator-DEModulator) - a device for converting digital datainto audio signals and back again. Primarily used for transmitting data betweencomputers over telephone lines.

Modern - refers to type styles introduced towards the end of the 19thcentury. Times roman is a good example of modern type.

Moiré pattern - the result of superimposing half-tone screens at thewrong angle thereby giving a chequered effect on the printed half-tone.Normally detected during the stage of progressive proofs.

Monospace - a font in which all characters occupy the same amount ofhorizontal width regardless of the character.

Montage - a single image formed from the assembling of several images.

Mounting board - a heavy board used for mounting artwork.

Mouse - a handheld pointing device using either mechanical motion orspecial optical techniques to convert the movement of the user\'s hand intomovements of the cursor on the screen. Generally fitted with one, two or threebuttons which can control specific software functions.

MS (Manuscript) - the original written or typewritten work of an authorsubmitted for publication.

Mutt - a typesetting term for the em space.


N


Newsprint - Unsized, low quality, absorbent paper used for printingnewspapers.

Nipping - a stage in book binding where after sewing the sheets arepressed to expel air.


O

Oblique stroke - for example: (/)

OCR (Optical Character Recognition) - a special kind of scanner whichprovides a means of reading printed characters on documents and converting theminto digital codes that can be read into a computer as actual text rather thanjust a picture.

Offprint - a run-on or reprint of an article first published in amagazine or journal.

Offset lithography - (see Lithography) a printing method wherebythe image is transferred from a plate onto a rubber covered cylinder from whichthe printing takes place.

Oldstyle (US) - a style of type characterised by stressed strokes andtriangular serifs. An example of an oldstyle face is Garamond.

Onion skin - a translucent lightweight paper used in air mailstationery.

Opacity - term used to describe the degree to which paper will showprint through.

Optical centre - a point above the true centre of the page which willnot appear \'low\' as the geometric centre does.

Optical Disks - video disks on which large amounts of information can bestored in binary form representing characters of text or images. The diskscannot be used to view the information using a modified compact disk player andTV. Mainly used for reference works such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.(aka CD-ROM).

Orphan - line of type on its own at the top or bottom of a page.

Outline - a typeface in which the characters are formed with only theoutline defined rather than from solid strokes.

Overlay - a transparent sheet used in thepreparation of multi-colour artwork showing the colour breakdown.

Overprinting - printing over an area already printed. Used to emphasisechanges or alterations.

Overs - additional paper required to compensate for spoilage inprinting. Also used to refer to a quantity produced above the number of copiesordered.

Overstrike - a method used in word processing to produce a character notin the typeface by superimposing two separate characters, eg $ using s and l.

Ozalid - a trade name to describe a method of copying page proofs frompaper or film.


P


Page Printer - the more general (and accurate) name used to describenon-impact printers which produce a complete page in one action. Examplesinclude laser, LED and LCD shutter xerographic printers, ion deposition,electro-erosion and electro-photographic printers.

Page Description Language (PDL) - a special form of programming languagewhich enables both text and graphics (object or bit-image) to be described in aseries of mathematical statements. Their main benefit is that they allow theapplications software to be independent of the physical printing device asopposed to the normal case where specific routines have to be written for eachdevice. Typical PDLs include Interpress, imPress, PostScript and DDL.

Page proofs - the stage following galley proofs, in which pages are madeup and paginated.

PageMaker - the software program from Aldus Corporation that everyoneassociates with desktop publishing due to its immense success on the AppleMacintosh. Now available on both the Macintosh and the PC it is still used as abenchmark product although certain aspects of its design are coming underattack from other software products.

Pagination - the numbering of pages in a book.

Pantone - a registered name for an ink colour matching system.

Paper plate - a short run offset printing plate on which matter can betyped directly.

Paragraph mark ( ) - a type symbol used to denote the start of aparagraph. Also used as a footnote sign.

Parallel fold - a method of folding; eg two parallel folds will producea six page sheet.

Paste up - the various elements of a layout mounted in position to formcamera-ready artwork.

Perfect binding - a common method of binding paperback books. After theprinted sections having been collated, the spines will be ground off and thecover glued on.

Perfector - a printing press which prints both sides of the paper at onepass through the machine.

Photogravure - (see Gravure) a printing process where the imageis etched into the plate cylinder. The main advantage of this method ofprinting is the high speed, long run capability. Used mainly for mail order andmagazine work.

Pi fonts - characters not usually included in a font, but which areadded specially. Examples of these are timetable symbols and mathematicalsigns.

Pica - a printing industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to apica, one pica is approximately 0.166in.

Picking - the effect of ink being too tacky and lifting fibres out ofthe paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid colour.

Pipelining - the ability of a program to flow automatically text fromthe end of one column or page to the beginning of the next. An extra level ofsophistication can be created by allowing the flow to be re-directed to anypage and not just the next available. This is ideal for USstyle magazines whereeverything is \'Continued on...\'!

Point - the standard unit of type size of which there are 72 to the inch(one point is approximately 0.01383in). Point size is the measured from the topof the ascender to the bottom of the descender.

Portrait - an upright image or page where the height is greater than thewidth.

Positive - a true photographic image of the original made on paper orfilm.

PostScript - a page description language developed by Adobe Systems.Widely supported by both hardware and software vendors it represents thecurrent \'standard\' in the market. John Warnock and Chuck Geschke of Adobe bothworked for Xerox at the Palo Alto Research Centre where PDLs were invented andset up their company to commercially exploit the concepts they had helpeddevelop.

Preview mode - a mode where word processing or desktop publishingsoftware which doesn\'t operate in WYSIWYG fashion can show a representation ofthe output as it will look when printed. The quality ranges from acceptable toworse than useless.

Primary colours - cyan, magenta and yellow. These three colours whenmixed together with black will produce a reasonable reproduction of all othercolours.

Print engine - the parts of a page printer which perform theprint-imaging, fixing and paper transport. In fact, everything but thecontroller.

Printer Command Language - a language developed by Hewlett Packard foruse with its own range of printers. Essentially a text orientated language, ithas been expanded to give graphics capability.

Progressives - colour proofs taken at each stage of printing showingeach colour printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding colour.

Proof - a copy obtained from inked type, plate, block or screen forchecking purposes.

Proof correction marks
- a standard set of signs and symbols used in copypreparation and to indicate corrections on proofs. Marks are placed both in thetext and in the margin.

Proportional spacing - a method of spacing whereby each each characteris spaced to accommodate the varying widths of letters or figures, soincreasing readability. Books and magazines are set proportionally spaced,typewritten documents are generally monospaced.

Pull-down menus - developed from Xerox research (like just abouteverything else we take for granted in desktop publishing) these are a methodof providing user control over software without cluttering up the screen withtext. Using the mouse or cursor keys the user points to the main heading of themenu he or she wants and the menu pulls (Windows) or drops (GEM) from theheading. When the required function has been selected the menu rolls back upinto the menu bar leaving the screen clear.

Pulp - the raw material used in paper making consisting mainly of woodchips, rags or other fibres. Broken down by mechanical or chemical means.


Q


Quadding - the addition of space to fill out a line of type using en orem blocks.

Quire - 1/20th of a ream (25 sheets).


R

Ragpaper- high quality stationery made from cotton rags.

Ragged - lines of type that do not start or end at the same position.

Ranged left/right - successive lines of type which are of unequal lengthand which are aligned at either the right or left hand column.

Raster Image Processor (RIP) - the hardware engine which calculates thebit-mapped image of text and graphics from a series of instructions. It may, ormay not, understand a page description language but the end result should, ifthe device has been properly designed, be the same. Typical RIPs which aren\'tPDL-based include the Tall Trees JLaser, the LaserMaster and AST\'s TurboLasercontroller. A basic page printer comes with a controller and not a RIP whichgoes some way to explaining the lack of control

Ream - 500 sheets of paper.

Reference marks - symbols used in text to direct the reader to afootnote. E.g. asterisk (*), dagger, double dagger, section mark ( ), paragraphmark ( ).

Register marks - used in colour printing to position the papercorrectly. Usually crosses or circles.

Register - the correct positioning of an image especially when printingone colour on another.

Resolution - the measurement used in typesetting to express quality ofoutput. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the moresmoother and cleaner appearance the character/image will have. Currently Page(laser) Printers print at 300, 406 and 600dpi. Typesetting machines print at1,200 dpi or more.

Rest in Proportion (RIP) - an instruction when giving sizes to artworkor photographs that other parts of the artwork are to be enlarged or reduced inproportion.

Retouching - a means of altering artwork or colour separations tocorrect faults or enhance the image.

Reverse out - to reproduce as a white image out of a solid background.

Revise - indicates the stages at which corrections have beenincorporated from earlier proofs and new proofs submitted. Eg First revise,second revise.

Right reading - a positive or negative which reads from left to right.

Roman - type which has vertical stems as distinct from italics oroblique which are set at angles.

Rotary press - a web or reel fed printing press which uses a curvedprinting plate mounted on the plate cylinder.

Rough - a preliminary sketch of a proposed design.

Royal - a size of printing paper 20in x 25in (508 x 635mm).

Ruler - rulers displayed on the sreen that show measures in inches,picas or millimeters.

Runaround (see also Text wrap) - the ability within a program torun text around a graphic image within a document, without the need to ajusteach line manually.

Running head - a line of type at the top of a page which repeats aheading.


S

S/S (Same size) - aninstruction to reproduce to the same size as the original.

Saddle stitching - a method of binding where the folded pages arestitched through the spine from the outside, using wire staples. Usuallylimited to 64 pages size.

Sans serif - a typeface that has no serifs (small strokes at the end ofmain stroke of the character).

Scale - the means within a program to reduce or enlarge the amount ofspace an image will occupy. Some programs maintain the aspect ratio betweenwidth and height whilst scaling, thereby avoiding distortion.

Scaling - a means of calculating the amount of enlargement or reductionnecessary to accommodate a photograph within the area of a design.

Scamp - a sketch of a design showing the basic concept.

Scanner - a digitizing device using light sensitivity to translate apicture or typed text into a pattern of dots which can be understood and storedby a computer. To obtain acceptable quality when scanning photographs, at least64 grey scales are required.

Scraperboard - a board prepared with black indian ink over a china claysurface. Drawings are produced by scraping away the ink to expose the chinaclay surface.

Section mark ( ) - a character used at the beginning of a new section.Also used as a footnote symbol.

Section - a printed sheet folded to make a multiple of pages.

Security paper - paper incorporating special features (dyes, watermarksetc) for use on cheques.

Serif - a small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of theletter.

Set size - the width of the type body of a given point size.

Set solid - type set without leading (line spacing) between the lines.Type is often set with extra space; eg 9 point set on 10 point.

Set off - the accidental transfer of the printed image from one sheet tothe back of another.

Sheet - a single piece of paper. In poster work refers to the number ofDouble Crown sets in a full size poster.

Sheet fed - a printing press which prints single sheets of paper, notreels.

Sheetwise - a method of printing a section. Half the pages from asection are imposed and printed. The remaining half of the pages are thenprinted on the other side of the sheet.

Show-through - see opacity.

Side stabbed or stitched - the folded sections of a book are stabbedthrough with wire staples at the binding edge, prior to the covers being drawnon.

Side heading - a subheading set flush into the text at the left edge.

Sidebar - a vertical bar positioned usually on the right hand side ofthe screen.

Signature - a letter or figure printed on the first page of each section of abook and used as a guide when collating and binding.

Sixteen sheet - a poster size measuring 120in x 80in (3050mm x 2030mm).

Size - a solution based on starch or casein which is added to the paperto reduce ink absorbency.

Slurring - a smearing of the image, caused by paper slipping during theimpression stage.

Small caps - a set of capital leters which are smaller than standard andare equal in size to the lower case letters for that typesize.

Snap-to (guide or rules) - a WYSIWYG program feature for accuratelyaligning text or graphics. The effect is exercised by various non-printingguidelines such as column guides, margin guides which automatically places thetext or graphics in the correct position flush to the column guide whenactivated by the mouse. The feature is optional and can be turned off.

Soft back/cover - a book bound with a paper back cover.

Soft or discretionary hyphen - a specially coded hyphen which is onlydisplayed when formatting of the hyphenated word puts it at the end of a line.

Spell check - a facility contained in certain word processing and pagemakeup programs to enable a spelling error check to be carried out.Dictionaries of American origin may not conform to English standards and theoption should be available within the program to modify the contents.Dictionaries usually contain between 60,000-100,000 words.

Spine - the binding edge at the back of a book.

SRA - a paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes slightlylarger than the A series allowing the printer extra space to bleed.

Stat - photostat copy.

Stem - the main vertical stroke making up a type character.

Stet - used in proof correction work to cancel a previous correction.From the Latin; \'let it stand\'.

Strap - a subheading used above the main headline in a newspaperarticle.

Strawboard - a thicker board made from straw pulp, used in bookwork andin the making of envelopes and cartons. Not suitable for printing.

Strike-through - the effect of ink soaking through the printed sheet.

Style sheet - a collection of tags specifying page layout styles,paragraph settings and type specifications which can be set up by the user andsaved for use in other documents. Some page makeup programs, such as Ventura,come with a set of style sheets.

Subscript - the small characters set below the normal letters orfigures.

Supercalendered paper - a smooth finished paper with a polishedappearance, produced by rolling the paper between calenders. Examples of thisare high gloss and art papers.

Superscript - the small characters set above the normal letters orfigures.

Surprint (US) - (see Overprinting) printing over apreviouslyprinted area of either text or graphics.

Swash letters - italic characters with extra flourishesused at thebeginning of chapters.

Swatch - a colour sample.


T


Tabloid - a page half the size of a broadsheet.

Tabular setting - text set in columns such as timetables.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) - a common format for interchangingdigital information, generally associated with greyscale or bitmap data.

Tags - the various formats which make up a style sheet- paragraphsettings, margins and columns, page layouts, hyphernation and justification,widow and orphan control and automatic section numbering.

Template - a standard layout usually containing basic details of thepage dimensions.

Text wrap - see Runaround.

Text - the written or printed material which forms the main body of apublication.

Text type - typefaces used for the main text of written material.Generally no larger than 14 point in size.

Thermography - a print finishing process producing a raised imageimitating die stamping. The process takes a previously printed image whichbefore the ink is dry is dusted with a resinous powder. The application of heatcauses the ink and powder to fuse and a raised image is formed.

Thin space - the thinnest space normally used to separate words.

Thirty two sheet - a poster size measuring 120in x 160in (3048mm x4064mm).

Threaded or Chained (US) - see Pipelining.

Thumbnails - the first ideas or sketches of a designer noted down forfuture reference.

Tied letters - see Ligature.

Tint - the effect of adding white to a solid colour or of screening asolid area.

Tip in - the separate insertion of a single page into a book eitherduring or after binding by pasting one edge.

Tone line process - the process of producing line art from a continuoustone original.

Toolbox - an on screen mouse operated facility that allows the user tochoose from a selection of \'tools\' to create simple goemetric shapes- lines,boxes, circles etc. and to add fill patterns.

Transparency - a full colour photographically produced image ontransparent film.

Trash can (US) - the icon selected for the deleting of files or objects.

Trim - the cutting of the finished product to the correct size. Marksare incorporated on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made.

Turnkey - a system designed for a specific user and to work as anintegrated unit. Usually has built-in contractual responsibilities for hardwareand software maintenance.

Twin wire - paper which has an identical smooth finish on both sides.

Typeface - the raised surface carrying the image of a type charactercast in metal. Also used to refer to a complete set of characters forming afamily in a particular design or style.

Typescript - a typed manuscript.

Typo (US) - an abbreviation for typographical error. An error in thetypeset copy.

Typographer - a specialist in the design of printed matter, and inparticular the art of typography.

Typography - the design and planning of printed matter using type.


U

U&lc - an abbreviationfor UPPER and lower case.

Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) - gives protection to authors ororiginators of text, photographs or illustrations etc, to prevent use withoutpermission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright markc, the name of the originator and the year of publication.


V

Varnishing - a finishingprocess whereby a transparent varnish is applied over the printed sheet toproduce a glossy finish.

Vellum - the treated skin of a calf used as a writing material. The nameis also used to describe a thick creamy book paper.

Ventura Publisher - the desktop publishing package marketed by Xerox.The Ventura approach is a document-oriented one working on the basis that eachpage will have a similar format. The package with its lends itself to theproduction of manuals and directories.

Vertical justification - the ability to ajust the interline spacing (leading)and manipulation of text in fine increments to make columns and pages end atthe same point on a page.

Vignette - a small illustration in a book not enclosed in a definiteborder.


W

Watermark - an impressionincorporated in the paper making process showing the name of the paper and/orthe company logo.

Web - a continuous roll of printing paper used on web-fed presses.

Web - abbr. for the World Wide Web, a system of linked \"pages\"on the internet.

Weight - the degree of boldness or thickness of a letter or font.

Wf - an abbreviation for \'wrong fount\'. Used when correcting proofs toindicate where a character is in the wrong typeface.

Widow - a single word left on the last line of a paragraph which fallsat the top of a page.

Windows - a software technique that allows a rectangular area of acomputer screen to display output from a program. With a number of programsrunning at one time, several windows can appear on the screen at one time.Information can be cut and pasted from one window to another. The best knownversion of \"windows\" is that developed by Microsoft, although that isbut a pale imitation of the Macintosh Operating System developed by Apple Computers.

Wire - the wire mesh used at the wet end of the paper making process.The wire determines the textures of the paper.

Wire stitching - see saddle or side stitching.

Woodfree paper - made from chemical pulp only with size added. Suppliedcalendered or supercalendered.

Word break - the division of a word at the end of a line.

Word wrap - in word processing, the automatic adjustment of the numberof words on a line of text to match the margin settings. The carriage returnsset up by this method are termed \"soft\", as against \"hard\"carriage returns resulting from the return key being pressed.

Work and turn - a method of printing where pages are imposed in oneforme or assembled on one film. One side is then printed and the sheet is thenturned over and printed from the other edge using the same forme. The finishedsheet is then cut to produce two complete copies.

Work and tumble - a method of printing where pages are again imposed together.The sheet is then printed on one side with the sheet being turned or tumbledfrom front to rear to print the opposite side.

Wove - a finely textured paper without visible wire marks.

WYSIWYG What-you-see-is-what-you-get (pronounced \"wizzywig\") -used to describe systems that preview full pages on the screen with text andgraphics. The term can however be a little misleading due to difference in theresolution of the computer screen and that of the page printer.


X

X-height - the height of aletter excluding the ascendants and descenders; eg \'x\', which is also height ofthe main body.

Xerography - a photocopying/printing process in which the image isformed using the electrostatic charge principle. The toner replaces ink and canbe dry or liquid. Once formed, the image is sealed by heat. Most laser printerscurrently use this method of printing.


Y


(none)


Z

 (none)